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These are key terms used in these lessons.

Cultural Data Sets

Carol Lee (2008) uses the term “cultural data set” to refer to examples of everyday lived experiences of children and youth that can be integrated with subject-specific disciplines in classrooms. This could include, for example, students’ reports on their own daily life practices (such as in the journal entries we have shared here), photographs they take in their homes or communities, images from the community (e.g. murals), and popular culture items that they engage with in their lives outside of school (e.g. music, youtube videos).  The idea is to find ways to connect the formal curriculum to students’ lived experiences and their interests.  The data sets should be mapped on to subject-specific curriculum.


We refer to a complex set of language practices: the numerous ways in which children of immigrants use their knowledge of two languages to speak, read, write, listen and do things for others.(See Orellana, 2009 for more discussion of this and other terms to name the practice.)


We use this term to refer to the collective set of linguistic tools that people have, that allow them to adapt their language practices as they talk in different situations, relationships and activities.


Orellana (2009) defines this as "a disposition to understand the perspectives of people from backgrounds different than one's own, and the ability and willingness to adapt behaviors, discursives practices and epistemological stances flexibly in interactions with others." 

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